BIOTECHNOLOGY is not a pure science. This includes both Biological Science and new research in technology. This is a technology which could be utilised satisfactory by using new techniques in using up the products of living creatures.

The Biotechnology has come up as ray of hope to the leaders who rule our country in solving many problems easily. The whole universe is inversed in effectively solving all our problems. Biotechnology is drawing the attention of the world through its wonderful attractive shapes .

The whole knowledge is used in Biotechnology viz., Biotechnology, Microbiology and Engineering.

Before Biotechnology

About 5000 years ago man has put foundation to Biotechnology by using the micro organism in wine , vinegar, curds and bread preparation.

In 1913, by using clostridium micro organisms acetone, buteinol an glycerol were prepared. In 1994 Penicillin chemicals which enhances immunity were prepared by using micro-organisms called penicillium.

But all these techniques are sufficiently old. In the modern technology we may have microbes or may not .

Modern Biotechnology

The modern technology is that by using the genes of plants or animals and effective alteration in them so that new productive power may come up .

By mixing the modern scientific principles with the products of electronic technology we arrive at Biotechnology which is the result of experiments for the welfare of humanity.

In Biotechnology sphere the following have been used: Microbiology, Biotechnology, Anthropology, Immunology,

Genetics, Tissue culture and Genetic Engineering. The new research is regard to functions of the body.

It is not an exaggeration to say that the Biotechnology has played an important role in the field of agriculture production, human health, animal health, industrial products and pollution removal.

From the research conducted for the lost 30 years it has been found out that transferring the DNA through technology to animals or from micro-organisms to plants is possible.

Among them the following are important:

1. DNA Replacement Technology 2. Cloning DNA Technology
3. Transformation Technology
4. DNA Finger Print Technology 5. Tissue culture Technology

Now, more than 300 industrial institutions have utilised Biotechnology for their production purposes . In India, The National Biotechnology Board was established in 1982 . Later in 1986 it was formed as IDBT , Indian Department of Biotechnology.

DNA: Recombinant DNA Technology

This is technology which effects necessary changes in genes. This is used in laboratories to effect this change. It has now been possible to reproduce the genes in a separate sphere.

Cloning DNA Technology

In the DNA there is a particular series of the Nucleic Acid which decides the particular character. For this serial many xerox portions are required. Thus in the reproductive process DNA cloning could be observed.

Creation through cloning is growing very fast in technology. In the field of plants, cloning to plants is fastly growing. Genes purity has been given much importance.

Even among animals and humans through sexual reproduction cloning has been possible. In certain plants asexual reproduction is a general phenomenon and certain plants it is impossible.

In tissue technology, asexual reproduction has been possible.

In asexual reproduction any part of a plant could transform into a new plant.

The cut portion of a plant or plant tissue could be used in the controlled situation to grow new plants. For this specialised laboratory ward be necessary . Separate chamber will be there for preparing media, plant chambers and growing. In every chamber special apparatuses, air condition , microbe free atmosphere etc. will be arranged.

Among animals mice were first recreated . In 1980 James Maragrath and Dawood Solver tried this first. Dr. Wilmet expressed an astonishing topic in 1997 which the whole world witnessed. He took cells from a white lamb’s udder , segregated, then transferred them to ennucleated fertilized egg of black lamb and protected it in test tube under better conditions and it transplanted to the uterus of . This became embryo to black lamb and got younger ones . This became famous as Dolly . Through this white Dolly by sexual reproduction Boni Lamb has been got .

If it were possible to clone human beings also we could have cloned thousands of Mahatma Gandhi’s, Albert Einstein’s and

Mother Teresa’s.

Transformation Technology

Changes are being taking place among animals, birds and plants . This change is due to natural phenomena of nature as also man made artificial act . Man with his intelligence has been able to find out the scientific secrets hidden in the nature and he is trying to make his life meaningful. Today in this act, he has been able to affect changes in animals, birds , plants, microbes , by using recombinant DNA technology.

Thus, due to this biotechnology he is able to change the genes and like this came into being β€˜cloning animals’.


This is one more leading technique of modern Biotechnology.

Among the species to find out the resemblance a person’s DNA finger print will be separated as small pieces, according their size they will be segregated. By using specialised appliances DNA will be made . As the DNA finger print differs from person this technology has been useful in crime detection branch.


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